Geissmann, T. (2000). Duet songs of the siamang, Hylobates syndactylus: I. Structure and organisation. Primate Report 56: 33-60.

Duet songs of the siamang (Hylobates syndactylus): I. Structure and organisation

T. Geissmann
Institute of Zoology, Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover

Key Words: Duet; song; siamang; Hylobates syndactylus; gibbons; vocalisations.

Abstract: Siamangs (Hylobates syndactylus) produce loud and long song bouts which are mostly exhibited by mated pairs. Typically, mates combine their partially sex-specific repertoire in relatively rigid, precisely timed and complex vocal interactions to produce well-patterned duets. This study presents a detailed description of singing behaviour, repertoire, and song and duet organisation of several adult pairs of captive siamangs. A comparison of the findings of the present study with previously published descriptions of siamang duetting behaviour reveals that various authors have been using different terms when referring to the same vocal elements, while others have applied the same names to completely different elements. In addition, the organisation of both the song bout as a whole, as well as the great call sequence in particular, is more complex than has been believed previously.

Site by Thomas Geissmann.
For comments & suggestions, please email to
Gibbon Research
Lab. Home: